. , Acco, Akko ; Ar. . Corrections? The presence of pigs in the Decapolis (Mark 5:11) would certainly have made the area offensive and off-limits to those who followed Torah. The Bible records two of Jesus' visits to the Decapolis. roman brutus julius augustus cassius caesar coin There was some conflict. Therefore, its best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publications requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html, Region in northeastern Palestine in the Greco-Roman period. The Decapolis must have existed as a special district in the second century, since the geographer Ptolemy speaks of it as such; when, however, the province of Arabia was organized (106), several of those cities came gradually to be included in that provincefor example, Gerasa and Philadelphia (Ammian. bibliography: S. Thomas Parker, "The Decapolis Reviewed," in: jbl, 94 (1975), 43741; A. Spijkerman, The Coins of the Decapolis and Provincia Arabia (1978); B. Isaac, "The Decapolis in Syria: A Neglected Inscription," in: Zeitschrift fr Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 44 (1981), 6774; J.M.C. Systems of Transliteration Citation of Proper Names. The Decapolis was a center of Hellenistic and Roman culture in a region which was otherwise populated by Jews, Nabataeans and Arameans. A different list of 18 cities of the Decapolis appears in the writings of the geographer Ptolemy (second century c.e.). Decapolis, league of 10 ancient Greek cities in eastern Palestine that was formed after the Roman conquest of Palestine in 63 bc, when Pompey the Great reorganized the Middle East to Romes advantage and to his own. SCHODER, R. V. "Decapolis ." In biblical Hebrew, as in other Semitic languages, a single word, ir (, rendered in this article as "city"), is used usually to designate a, GAZA geographical limits, but it always meant the area east both of Perea and lower Galilee. Many visitors to Galilee are amazed at how close Jesus' area of ministry was to the pagan Decapolis. With the exception of Damascus and Kanatha, the cities of the Decapolis constituted a continuous bloc south and southeast of the Sea of Galilee, extending from Philadelphia in the south to Hippus in the north. Josephus mentions Scythopolis ("B. They formed a group because of their language, culture, religion, location, and political status, with each functioning as an autonomous city-state dependent on Rome. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Under Roman rule, the cities of the Decapolis were not included in the territory of the Herodian kingdom, its successor states of the Herodian tetrarchy, or the Roman province of Judea. The Roman and Byzantine Decapolis region was influenced and gradually taken over by Christianity. ; Bttger, Lexikon zu Flavius Josephus, p. 102, Leipsic, 1879; Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. The Decapolis came under direct Roman rule in AD 106, when Arabia Petraea was annexed during the reign of the emperor Trajan. Discover the Bible in light of its historical and cultural context! Certainly, it was distant in its values and beliefs. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 7, 3; compare 10, 2); but after his death they were again declared to be free by Augustus, so that Galilee and Perea, the two districts of Herod Antipas' tetrarchy, were separated by the Decapolis. [8], The cities may also have enjoyed strong commercial ties, fostered by a network of new Roman roads. Their Hellenistic spirit and population made them a counterbalance to Jewish nationalism and centers of opposition to the Maccabean revolt and subsequent hasmonaean rule in the second and first centuries b.c. Learn about upcoming promotions, releases, and other updates from That the World May Know. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. It would be easy for us to isolate ourselves in safe, rule-bound communities and just let the outside world destroy itself. It is curious that Damascus, which lies much further north, is also included in the Decapolis. The Decapolis city-states were satisfied with their freedom under Roman authority. 15:30 record the same event. Bibliography: f. m. abel, Histoire de la Falestine depuis la conqute d'Alexandre jusqu' l'invasion Arabe, 2 v. (Paris 1952) 1:263264. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces (1937), 2601; M. Rostovtseff, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, 2 (1957), 6645, n. 33, n. 34; Seyrig, in: Syria: Revue d'art et d'Archologie, 36 (1959), 6078; Bietenhard, in: zdpv, 79 (1963), 24ff. . ; Avi-Yonah, Land. According to Eusebius a group of Jews who believed in Jesus fled from Jerusalem to Pella prior to the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 c.e. j. hofer and k. rahner (Freiburg 195765) 3:204205. The Roman general Pompey conquered the eastern Mediterranean in 63 BC. Supporters of the Herods, the Herodions, also enjoyed the Hellenistic lifestyle their overlords created.

Some local deities began to be called by the name Zeus, from the chief Greek god. 2022 . ), some scholars have suggested that Pompey founded the Decapolis when he freed the Greek cities which had been conquered by Alexander Yannai. The exact number varied over time, and at one stage 14 cities are reported to have been members. Rome provided support for their cultural practices and helped them resist the seemingly outdated worldview of the Jews. The Greek inhabitants were shocked by the Jewish practice of circumcision, which was regarded as a cruel and barbaric genital mutilation. ACRE (Heb. Students studied the philosophy of classical Greece, received athletic training, and competed naked in athletic events. For the son, it would be only a short walk from the Decapolis back home to his forgiving father. 1. Give now to help That The World May Know Ministries reveal the heart of Scripturethrough life-changing study tours, an engaging film series, and morefor a greater understanding of Gods Word than ever before. Damascus served both economically and geographically as the northern assembling point for this trade and Scythopolis as the link connecting the trade routes with western Palestine. Each city had jurisdiction over an extensive area. The Decapolis was probably never an official political or economic union; most likely it signified the collection of city-states which enjoyed special autonomy during early Roman rule. 18, 1), Gadara, and Hippos ("Vita," 65, 74) as in the Decapolis. The cities of the league were important because they were situated along the trade routes between northern Arabia and Syria. In these cities and even in nearby regions, Hellenism influenced much of everyday life. Applebaum, Shimon; Gibson, Shimon "Decapolis They also learned to draw and sculpt, often creating the forms of Greek gods. by Josephus (Wars, 3:446), who refers to Scythopolis as the largest of the cities of the Decapolis, and in the New Testament with Jesus at one point passing through the region of the Decapolis (Mark 7:31, cf. 5.16.74), and in a few other places. Understanding the pagan world represented by these city-states helps us see the significance of Jesus' response to it. Hellenism's values permeated the gymnasium and its excellent system of education, the theater, and the games in the arena. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible, tr. He went to them and pierced the darkness of their sinful lifestyle with the light of God's message of salvation and love.

The culture of these prosperous cities was Hellenistic in all its Roman glory. These kingdoms were sections of the empire of Alexander the Great, divided among his generals after his death. According to Pliny (c. a.d. 75), the Ten Cities of the Decapolis were the following: (1) Gadara (modern Muqeis), considered the capital, about 8 miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee; (2) Scythopolis (Old Testament Bethsan, modern Beisan), west of the Jordan, about 25 miles southwest of the Sea of Galilee, guarding the main road from the Plain of Jezreel to the Jordan fords, called the largest city of the Decapolis by Josephus; (3) Pella (modern Khirbet Fahil), east of the Jordan, seven miles southeast of Scythopolis, the place where the Christians of Jerusalem sought refuge during the siege of 6670; (4) Hippos (Sousitha, modern Qalaat el-Husn near Fq), on the slopes of the lower east shore of the Sea of Galilee;(5) Rephana (the Raphon of 1 Mc 5.37, modern er-Rfeh), about 35 miles south of Damascus; (6) Dion (modern Tell el-Ashar), about 12 miles southwest of Rephana; (7) Gerasa (modern Jerash), the best preserved of the ancient cities of the Decapolis; (8) Philadelphia (the Old Testament Rabbah of the Ammonites, modern Ammn, capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of jordan);(9) Canatha (the Canath or Kenath of Nm 32.42, modern Qanawt), in Auranitis near the edge of the Syrian Desert; and (10) damascus, well-known from the Old Testament. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The glorification of sexuality, violence, wealth, and the human form, and the view that only what the human mind can understand and formulate can possibly be true, is the value system of humanism.

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, TIBERIAS (Heb. des Deutsch. In the midst of these attractions, the faithful Jewish population struggled to maintain its beliefs. Damascus, Beth-Shean) while others were newly established in the Hellenistic period. 2:1, 22d etc.). Updates? The Decapolis which was originally attached to the Roman Province of Syria is already mentioned in the 1st century c.e. These cities, while joined as a league by the Romans to control the trade route that went from Arabia to Damascus and to provide protection for the eastern frontier, had a large measure of local autonomy. ." Greek cultural institutions were established in many cities, including Jerusalem. Before that time, during the Maccabean period (167-63 BC), many of these cities had resented the attempts of religious Jews to convert them to their religion and practices. It is clear from ancient records that the religious Jews of Jesus' day opposed the values and practices of Hellenism. f. m. abel, Gographie de la Palestine (Paris 193338) 2:145146, 230. k. hpf, Lexikon fr Theologie und Kirche, ed. "the ten cities"), league or administrative grouping of Syrian-Greek cities situated in southern Syria, the northern Jordan Valley, and in Transjordan in the Roman and Byzantine periods. Except for Scythopolis, Damascus and Canatha, the Decapolis cities were by and large founded during the Hellenistic period, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE and the Roman conquest of Coele-Syria, including Judea in 63 BCE. Retrieved June 22, 2022 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/decapolis. Theaters became common and popular. Hellenistic cities had stadiums for the public display of athletic contests. Many of the cities that would come to be known as the "10 cities" (Decapolis in Greek) were founded by the Greek settler-soldiers of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms. Few people did more to bring these Hellenistic ideas to the Jews than Herod the Great and his sons. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/decapolis, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Decapolis People from the small villages of Galilee must have been awed by the marble streets, mosaic floors, running water, and fountains. (190716); Schuerer, Gesch, 2 (1907), 15093; S. Klein, Ever ha-Yarden ha-Yehudi (1920); V. Tcherikover, Ha-Yehudim ve-ha-Yevanim, 2 (1930); idem, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (1959), 106 and index; idem, Hellenistische Staedtegruendungen (1925); A.H.M. While there is evidence of Jewish communities in these cities (most had synagogues, although these were constructed long after Jesus' time), it seems clear that this area was considered pagan by those Jews who were devoted to Israel's God and his Torah as the guide for their lives. [6] Various elements of Jewish dissent towards the dominant and assimilative nature of Hellenic civilization arose gradually in the face of assimilation. His message clearly was for the inhabitants of the Decapolis, for they heard and followed. Nothing is known of the legal aspects of the league in which the cities were united; at any rate, a reciprocal relationship existed between the various members. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Pella was a base for some of the earliest church leaders (Eusebius reports that the apostles fled there to escape the First JewishRoman War). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Hippos (Susita) was a major Decapolis city overlooking the Sea of Galilee from the east, but it is not directly mentioned in the New Testament. The name, CAESAREA , ancient city on the coast midway between Tel aviv and Haifa. With the exception of Scythopolis (= Beth-Shean) all these cities are east of the Jordan. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/decapolis-0, SCHODER, R. V. "Decapolis iii.

If you are trying to schedule a speaking engagement for Ray Vander Laan, please email Alison at [emailprotected], That the World May Know Ministries (TTWMK). GAZA (Heb. The population of the Decapolis was chiefly pagan. Some of the cities of the Decapolis were situated on the sites of earlier cities (e.g. Encyclopedia.com. The Maccabean revolt and the support of this revolt by the Hasidim "those fiercely devoted to Yahweh and the Torah" was in large part a reaction to the attempts of these Greek-thinking kingdoms to convert the Jews to their pagan values and practices. Jesus wants us to follow his example in confronting the darkness in our own world. Retrieved June 22, 2022 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/decapolis. Meanwhile, in some cities Greeks began worshipping these local "Zeus" deities alongside their own Zeus Olympios. 13:1). 277, Leipsic, 1873); the other cities with their territories were probably included a century earlier. reestablished these essentially non-Jewish cities as autonomous states in a common federation loosely attached to the Roman Province of Syria. Josephus stated that Scythopolis was the largest of the ten towns. , Azzah ), city on the southern coastal plain of Ere Israel. or established by the Seleucid dynasty somewhat later. 2022 . Among the famous residents of the cities were: Theodorus (teacher of the emperor Tiberius), Menippus the cynic, Oenomaus the stoic (who is perhaps identical with Avnimus the Gardi mentioned in the Talmud), and Meleager the poet, all from Gadara; Stephanus the historian, Plato the rhetorician, and Nikomachos the philosopher, from Gerasa; Aristotle the rhetorician came from Pella; and *Nicolaus the historian, one of Herod's ministers, from Damascus. [7] In the later Roman Empire, they were divided between Arabia and Palaestina Secunda, of which Scythopolis served as the provincial capital; while Damascus became part of Phoenice Libanensis. Though they kept a few Jewish "rules" to pacify their religious subjects (e.g., they did not put their "images" on coins and apparently avoided eating pork), the Herods built theaters, stadiums, and gymnasiums. 5.14.18), replaced Rephana by Abila (modern Tell Abil), about midway between Dion and Gadara. Ironically, this area would become a vital center for the early church. He modeled another way for us as his followers. The people of the Hellenized cities welcomed Pompey as a liberator from the Jewish Hasmonean Kingdom that had ruled much of the area. 250, 256, Freiburg, 1896; Baedeker, Palstina, 5th ed., lv. Bowsher, "Architecture and Religion in the Decapolis: A Numismatic Survey," in: peq, 119 (1987), 62; A. Segal, Town Planning and Architecture in Provincia Arabia (1988); F. Millar, The Roman Near East 31 bcad 337 (1993), 408ff. 417 et seq., 563 et seq. Lightfoot, Opera Omnia, 1699, ii. There is a lot we do not know about the Decapolis, but we know enough to be enlightened concerning Jesus' visits to this Hellenistic area. According to Matthew 4:2325 the Decapolis was one of the areas from which Jesus drew his multitude of disciples, attracted by His "healing all kinds of sickness". According to Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," v. 18, 74) these ten cities were Damascus, Philadelphia, Raphana, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, Dion, Pella, Gerasa, and Canatha. Nat. The "Onomasticon" of Eusebius and Jerome (ed. When Jesus had cast out the demons, he commanded the man to return home to tell others what God had done for him. When Rome assumed control of the area, the pagans were pleased to finally receive autonomy from the religious fanatics. According to Josephus, Gerasa was the only city which protected its Jewish inhabitants (Wars, 2:480), but remains of a synagogue found there show that it was destroyed even before the time of Hadrian. However, the Decapolis was no longer a unit of administration. Gymnasiums, or Greek educational institutions, appeared in many cities, including Jerusalem, not far from the Temple. Ver. Jud. 1.7.7; 3.9.7; Ant. He sailed across the sea and confronted evil directly to bring his message of love to the Hellenistic Decapolis. Pompey again separated them from the Jewish territory in 63 B.C., and placed them as autonomous cities directly under the government of the legate of Syria. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Refer to each styles convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. The struggle of the Pharisees to avoid all uncleanness, while often creating a lack of love for those who were suffering, at heart may have included a desire to resist the pagan views of their neighbors. Damascus was granted the status of a Roman colony by Alexander Severus as was Gadara by Valens. The cities were Greek from their founding, modeling themselves on the Greek polis.

jerash mirela Hellenistic culture flourished in the Decapolis in the Roman period. The other cities of the Decapolis were considered part of Syrian territory until 105106 c.e. Its northernmost city was Damascus, its southernmost one Philadelphia (Ammn), and its easternmost one Canatha; but in New Testament times, Damascus and Canatha were considered outside the Decapolis proper, the northern boundary of which was drawn above Abila and Hippos east of the lower half of the Sea of Galilee. [2] They are: Damascus was further north than the others and so is sometimes thought to have been an "honorary" member.

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). In fact, the Greek language became the common tongue of the economic world. Jesus had several persons from the Decapolis among his followers (Matt. 9, 7), Philadelphia (ib. [4] Biblical commentator Edward Plumptre therefore suggested that Damascus was not included in Josephus' list. .

The peak of their prosperity occurred in the second Christian century, especially between 138 and 193, when Roman power was at its height. The imperial cult, the worship of the Roman emperor, was a very common practice throughout the Decapolis and was one of the features that linked the different cities. Your support now will help strengthen marriages, equip parents to raise godly children, save preborn babies, reach out to orphans and more by supporting our daily broadcasts, online and print resources, counseling, and life-changing initiatives. The devil was unable to prevent Jesus from crossing the sea to enter the pagan territory, so his demonic power confronted Jesus when He came ashore. One of the most magnificent of the Decapolis cities, Hippos, sitting high on a hill, could be clearly seen across the Sea of Galilee by the fishermen of Capernaum and other villages around the sea. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. It is highly recommended for anyone who wants to better understand the significance of Jesus' teaching. . Pliny (Natural History, 5:74) indicated that the Decapolis adjoined the Province of Judaea and lists the following ten cities *Damascus, Philadelphia (*Amman), Raphana (al-Rfa), Scythopolis (*Beth-Shean), *Gadara (Gader, now Um-Qays), Hippus (*Susitha, now Qalat al-un east of the Sea of Galilee), Dium/Dion (Tell al-Ashar? and adap. His dream of "Hellenizing" (making Greek) the entire world did not die with him. 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20; Luke 8:26-39). ), city on the western shore of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), and the largest settlement in the Jordan Valley. Marcell. Applebaum, Shimon; Gibson, Shimon "Decapolis Akk; Ptolemais; St. Jean d'Acre ) coastal city in northern Israel situated on a promontory at the n, https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/decapolis, https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/decapolis-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/decapolis.

Encyclopedia.com. The religious Jews of Galilee struggled against this pagan worldview. Encyclopedia.com. Mark 5:1-10 emphasizes the Decapolis' gentile character when Jesus encounters a herd of pigs, an animal forbidden by Kashrut, the Jewish dietary laws. In Hadrian's time Abila (Abel, Tell Ibil, north of Irbid) was also a member of the league. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. . ." Some were abandoned in the years following Palestine's conquest by the Umayyad Caliphate in 641, but other cities continued to be inhabited long into the Islamic period. From earliest times it served as the base of Egyptian operations, ACRE . The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Alexander the Great had a mission: He wanted the whole world to be under the influence of Greek culture in religion, language, philosophy, political structure, and values. The cities participated in the Decapolis as a means of mutual protection and security against their Semitic neighbours. But Jesus wants us to follow his example.

The Talmud speaks often of the pagan population of these cities, the philosopher Oenomaos of Gadara, for instance, being cited; hence several cities mentioned in the Talmud under other names may have been identical with the cities of the Decapolis, as Susitha with Hippos, Pela with Pella.

The Decapolis is mentioned by name only three times in the New Testament. When Pompey reorganized the region, he awarded a group of these cities with autonomy under Roman protection; This was the origin of the Decapolis. Focus on the Family is committed to helping families thrive according to Gods Word! Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Seeing the exceptionally modern perspective of Hellenism can help us understand their struggle. The meaning of Jesus' confrontation with the demons of the Decapolis, found in this handout, is based on Pixner's work. Temples were built to honor local gods, and festivals were held to celebrate pagan holidays. The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. At the same time they served as a Roman security ring around Palestine; during the Bar Kokhba War (132135), Hadrian made Gerasa his base for attacking Judea. Some claimed Greek origins (see a discussion of their foundation legends by Lichtenberger). (June 22, 2022). Name of a district of Palestine that included a number of autonomous cities. 65:3-5, 66:3). The cities of the league possessed autonomy in internal affairs as well as the right to mint coins. Many coins from Decapolis cities identify their city as "autonomous," "free," "sovereign," or "sacred," terms that imply some sort of self-governing status. Each city functioned as a polis or city-state, with jurisdiction over an area of the surrounding countryside. [9][10], The New Testament gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke mention that the Decapolis region was a location of the ministry of Jesus. The cities acted as centers for the diffusion of Hellenistic culture. J." The territory to which Jesus sent the man was certainly one of the most challenging mission fields to which he ever called anyone. xv. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. These nations worshiped Baal and ate (and sacrificed) pigs (Isa. Encyclopedia.com. Pompey incorporated the cities of the Decapolis into the province of Syria and granted them autonomy. The Decapolis was one of the few regions where Jesus travelled in which Gentiles were in the majority: most of Jesus' ministry focused on teaching to Jews. ." By contrast, the Sadducees, while maintaining the prescribed Temple ceremonies, often became as Hellenistic as the pagans.

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